化工学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 72 ›› Issue (9): 4458-4468.doi: 10.11949/0438-1157.20210232

• 综述与专论 • 上一篇    下一篇

微生物修复Cr(Ⅵ)污染作用机制及研究进展

彭蕾(),姜岩(),夏如馨   

  1. 重庆工商大学废油资源化技术与装备教育部工程研究中心,重庆 400067
  • 收稿日期:2021-02-07 修回日期:2021-04-15 出版日期:2021-09-05 发布日期:2021-09-05
  • 通讯作者: 姜岩 E-mail:616357303@qq.com;jiangyan@ctbu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:彭蕾(1997—),女,硕士研究生,616357303@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    重庆市科技创新与应用发展专项(cstc2019jscx-msxmX0275);重庆市教委科学技术研究计划重点项目(KJZD-K201900804);国家自然科学基金项目(21376285)

The mechanism and research progress of bioremediation of Cr(Ⅵ) pollution

Lei PENG(),Yan JIANG(),Ruxin XIA   

  1. Engineering Research Center for Waste Oil Recovery Technology and Equipment of Ministry of Education, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing 400067, China
  • Received:2021-02-07 Revised:2021-04-15 Published:2021-09-05 Online:2021-09-05
  • Contact: Yan JIANG E-mail:616357303@qq.com;jiangyan@ctbu.edu.cn

摘要:

铬及含铬的复合污染环境问题日益突出,生物修复技术处理铬污染场地具有应用潜力。本文剖析了微生物吸附、吸收、转化及外排Cr(Ⅵ)等作用机制;结合当前的污染场地状况,概述了多因子复合胁迫下生物去除Cr(Ⅵ)的研究现状,指出金属离子和氧阴离子胁迫对细胞生长代谢及Cr(Ⅵ)的去除产生复杂影响,成为当前的研究热点;论述了在复合污染条件下利用生物修复技术去除Cr(Ⅵ)的研究进展。提出当前生物修复铬污染场地技术,正经历着由突破功能型菌株选育向探索生物解毒机制的转变,以现有认知可以证实生物去除Cr(Ⅵ)核心技术的应用潜力;限制生物修复技术发展的瓶颈在于修复成本和技术载体等工艺本身问题,在今后的研究中有必要给予足够的关注,以推动生物修复技术走向应用。

关键词: Cr(Ⅵ), 生物转化, 生物吸附, 抗性机制, Cr(Ⅵ)复合污染

Abstract:

The environmental problems of chromium and chromium-containing compound pollution have become increasingly prominent, and bioremediation technology has application potential for treating chromium-contaminated sites. In this article, the mechanisms of biosorption, absorption, transformation and Cr(Ⅵ) efflux are analyzed. According to contaminated site conditions, biological removal of Cr(Ⅵ) under multi-factor complex stress is summarized. Meanwhile, metal ions and oxygen anion stresses exert complex effects on cell metabolism and Cr(Ⅵ) removal, which has become the current research hotspot. Besides, progress of Cr(Ⅵ) bioremediation is expounded under combined pollution. Currently, bioremediation of chromium-contaminated sites is undergoing the transition from functional strain screening to detoxification mechanism. The current knowledge can prove the application potential of the core technology of biological removal of Cr(Ⅵ). However, the cost and medium of carrying technique have been bottleneck problems from craft itself to limit bioremediation application, which should be paid enough attention to promote the stable application of bioremediation in future research.

Key words: Cr(Ⅵ), biotransformation, biosorption, resistance mechanism, Cr(Ⅵ) combined pollution

中图分类号: 

  • X 506

图1

细胞表面Cr(Ⅵ)吸附"

表1

用于Cr(Ⅵ)吸附的生物吸附剂"

微生物生物吸附剂产生菌影响因素最大吸附量
真菌Aspergillus niger[10]pH、反应时间、温度、Cr(Ⅵ)浓度、接种量97.1 mg/g
Penicillium chrysogenum XJ-1[11]反应时间、Cr(Ⅵ)浓度、接种量52.7 mg/g
细菌Bacillus salmalaya 139SI[12]pH、反应时间、Cr(Ⅵ)浓度20.4 mg/g
Bosea sp.Zer-1[13]pH、Cr(Ⅵ)浓度、接种量55.0 mg/L
微藻Spirulina sp.[14]pH、反应时间、温度、Cr(Ⅵ)浓度、接种量90.9 mg/g
Spirulina platensis[15]pH、反应时间、Cr(Ⅵ)浓度、接种量100.0 mg/g

表2

具有Cr(Ⅵ)转化能力的微生物"

微生物菌株还原部位pH温度/℃转速/(r/min)时间/h初始浓度/(mg/L)去除率/%
细菌Aeribacillus pallidus BK1[30]细胞内7.56018036100.086.9
Bacillus sp.SFC 500-1E[31]细胞内7.0281507225.080.0
Bacillus sp.CRB-1[29]细胞内7.0422450.0100.0
Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA[32]细胞内、外7.0301801445.299.7
Pseudochrobactrum saccharolyticum W1[33]细胞内、表面3018060200.053.7
Pseudomonas brenneri[34]细胞内、表面6.03060.096.3
Oceanobacillus oncorhynchi W4[18]细胞内、表面9.03018072200.074.2
Shewanella sp.[35]细胞内、外7.0371801/3500.089.0
Bacillus sp.CRB-B1[17]细胞内、表面、外7.03715024150.089.6
Bacillus sp.TCL[16]细胞内、表面、外7.53715016200.0100.0
真菌A. flavus CR500[8]细胞内6.52816100.099.0
Cellulosimicrobium funkei sp.AR6[36]细胞内7.03520040200.0100.0
Penicillium oxalicum SL2[37]细胞内、外3018096210.464.3

图2

Cr(Ⅵ)转化协同抗性机制[36]"

图3

细胞外Cr(Ⅵ)转化"

表3

其他污染因子的胁迫对细胞去除Cr(Ⅵ)的影响"

胁迫类型微生物胁迫因子Cr(Ⅵ)去除
金属离子P. brenneri[34]Fe(Ⅱ)、Mn(Ⅱ)、Cu(Ⅱ)、Zn(Ⅱ)、Mg(Ⅱ)抑制
Chelatococcus daeguensis TAD1[53]Cu(Ⅱ)、Zn(Ⅱ)、Ni(Ⅱ)抑制
Bacillus sp.TCL[16]Cd(Ⅱ)、Cu(Ⅱ)、Ni(Ⅱ)、Pb(Ⅱ)无明显影响
氧阴离子Bacillus sp.CRB-B1[17]SO42-、HCO3-、NO3-抑制(NO3-)
P. oxalicum SL2[37]SO42-促进

表4

典型共去除含Cr(Ⅵ)复合有机污染物的微生物"

微生物

有机物

类型

Cr(Ⅵ)浓度/(mg/L)

Cr(Ⅵ)

去除率/%

有机物浓度/

(mg/L)

有机物

去除率/%

P. putida SKG-1 MTCC[67]五氯苯酚500.080.0100100.0
Serratia marcescens ZD-9[68]邻二氯苯20.080.0129090.0
Pseudomonas gessardii sp.LZ-E[69]10.095.080077.0
Bacillus sp.[70]苯酚100.050
Aeromonas hydrophila LZ-MG14[71]孔雀石绿18.393.720096.9

图4

不同培养条件对Lysinibacillus fusiformis共去除的影响(MM无机盐培养基、Cr(Ⅵ) 50 mg/L、润滑油500 mg/L、酵母浸粉0.5%、胰蛋白胨1%)"

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