CIESC Journal ›› 2023, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (1): 116-132.doi: 10.11949/0438-1157.20221053

• Reviews and monographs • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Self-propulsion of enzyme and enzyme-induced micro-/nanomotor

Yang HU1,2(), Yan SUN1()   

  1. 1.School of Chemical Engineering and Technology and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering (Ministry of Education), Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, China
    2.College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, Shandong, China
  • Received:2022-07-26 Revised:2022-09-16 Online:2023-01-05 Published:2023-03-20
  • Contact: Yan SUN;


Enzymes that play an essential role in life activities as biocatalysts have been reported to exhibit enhanced diffusion during the bioconversion of substrate to product. This self-driven diffusion-enhanced phenomenon provides a new angle to study enzymes: enzyme molecular motors (EMMs). Inspired by natural biomolecular motors, EMM was used as the “engine” to fabricate various enzyme-powered micro-/nanomotors (EMNMs) and micropumps (EMPs), converting chemical energy to mechanical energy and propelling movement at the micro-/nanoscale. Through ingenious design, EMNMs have been functionalized for accomplishing various tasks, attracting more and more attention. However, the precise movement mechanisms of EMM and EMNM are still under debate in current literature. The effects of size, structure, and enzyme properties on the micro-/nanoscale movement are still unclear. These limit the investigation of the application of EMNM and EMP. This article is devoted to reviewing the self-propelled molecular movement of EMM, as well as the movement of EMNM and EMP using an enzyme as the “engine”. First, the condition for realizing the molecular and micro-/nanoscale movement in the ultralow Reynolds number regime, the self-propulsion and chemotaxis of EMM, and the movement mechanism of the reported EMM were introduced. Then, the classification of the various EMNM and EMP are discussed, emphasizing the approach of enzyme-powered microscale movement and the potential application of EMNM. Finally, major challenges in the development of enzyme-powered devices are addressed and future research into this crucial field is proposed.

Key words: enzyme, biocatalysis, nanotechnology, self-propulsion, chemotaxis

CLC Number: 

  • TQ 013.2


The movement at a low Reynolds number(a) the motion mechanism of a theoretical 3-link swimmer[15]; (b) the movement of EMM and enzyme-propelled micro/nanodevice"


Enzyme molecular motor and its chemotaxis(a) schematic and experiment result illustrating the substrate-dependent diffusion enhancement of urease[5]; (b) schematic and experiment result illustrating the enhanced diffusion of DNA polymerase[23]; (c) schematic illustration of the microfluidics for the observation of EMM chemotaxis[24]; (d) the chemotaxis behavior of the enzyme catalyzing a cascade reaction[31]"


Artificial enzyme-powered micro-/nanomotor(a) schematic illustrating the micromotor propelled by catalase[10]; (b) illustration of the propulsion and movement control of urease-based micromotor[50]; (c) lipase-powered micromotor[52]; (d) design and catalytic network of micromotor powered by enzymatic cascade reactions[58]"


Schematic illustrating micropump powered by DNA polymerase[23]"


Motion control of EMNM(a) diffusion coefficient of nanomotor powered by catalase at different substrate concentrations[64]; (b) speed of nanomotor propelled by different enzymes[72]; (c) schematic illustrating the movement of micromotors with different sizes[77]; (d) illustration showing the movement control of enzyme-powered nanomotor through photothermal effect[80]"


Application of EMNM(a) schematic illustrating the urease-powered nanomotor for drug delivery[85]; (b) urease-powered nanomotor used to detect local pH[91]"

1 Feringa B L. The art of building small: from molecular switches to motors (Nobel lecture)[J]. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2017, 56(37): 11060-11078.
2 Stoddart J F. Mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs)—molecular shuttles, switches, and machines (Nobel lecture)[J]. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2017, 56(37): 11094-11125.
3 Sauvage J P. From chemical topology to molecular machines (Nobel lecture)[J]. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2017, 56(37): 11080-11093.
4 Guix M, Mayorga-Martinez C C, Merkoçi A. Nano/micromotors in (bio)chemical science applications[J]. Chemical Reviews, 2014, 114(12): 6285-6322.
5 Muddana H S, Sengupta S, Mallouk T E, et al. Substrate catalysis enhances single-enzyme diffusion[J]. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2010, 132(7): 2110-2111.
6 Butler P J, Dey K K, Sen A. Impulsive enzymes: a new force in mechanobiology[J]. Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering, 2015, 8(1): 106-118.
7 Zhao X, Gentile K, Mohajerani F, et al. Powering motion with enzymes[J]. Accounts of Chemical Research, 2018, 51(10): 2373-2381.
8 Mathesh M, Sun J W, Wilson D A. Enzyme catalysis powered micro/nanomotors for biomedical applications[J]. Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 2020, 8(33): 7319-7334.
9 Ghosh S, Somasundar A, Sen A. Enzymes as active matter[J]. Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics, 2021, 12: 177-200.
10 S􀅡nchez S, Solovev A A, Mei Y F, et al. Dynamics of biocatalytic microengines mediated by variable friction control[J]. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2010, 132(38): 13144-13145.
11 Feng M D, Gilson M K. Enhanced diffusion and chemotaxis of enzymes[J]. Annual Review of Biophysics, 2020, 49: 87-105.
12 Purcell E M. Life at low Reynolds number[J]. American Journal of Physics, 1977, 45(1): 3-11.
13 Wang W, Duan W T, Ahmed S, et al. Small power: autonomous nano- and micromotors propelled by self-generated gradients[J]. Nano Today, 2013, 8(5): 531-554.
14 金东东, 俞江帆, 黄天云, 等. 磁性微纳米尺度游动机器人: 现状与应用前景[J]. 科学通报, 2017, 62(Z1): 136-151.
Jin D D, Yu J F, Huang T Y, et al. Magnetic micro-/nanoscale swimmers: current status and potential applications[J]. Chinese Science Bulletin, 2017, 62(Z1): 136-151.
15 Lauga E. Life around the scallop theorem[J]. Soft Matter, 2011, 7(7): 3060-3065.
16 Pelz B, Žoldák G, Zeller F, et al. Subnanometre enzyme mechanics probed by single-molecule force spectroscopy[J]. Nature Communications, 2016, 7: 10848.
17 Patiño T, Arqué X, Mestre R, et al. Fundamental aspects of enzyme-powered micro- and nanoswimmers[J]. Accounts of Chemical Research, 2018, 51(11): 2662-2671.
18 Agudo-Canalejo J, Adeleke-Larodo T, Illien P, et al. Enhanced diffusion and chemotaxis at the nanoscale[J]. Accounts of Chemical Research, 2018, 51(10): 2365-2372.
19 Mirkovic T, Zacharia N S, Scholes G D, et al. Nanolocomotion—catalytic nanomotors and nanorotors[J]. Small, 2010, 6(2): 159-167.
20 Hassan P A, Rana S M, Verma G. Making sense of Brownian motion: colloid characterization by dynamic light scattering[J]. Langmuir, 2015, 31(1): 3-12.
21 Ries J, Schwille P. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy[J]. BioEssays, 2012, 34(5): 361-368.
22 Ma X, Hortelão A C, Patiño T, et al. Enzyme catalysis to power micro/nanomachines[J]. ACS Nano, 2016, 10(10): 9111-9122.
23 Sengupta S, Spiering M M, Dey K K, et al. DNA polymerase as a molecular motor and pump[J]. ACS Nano, 2014, 8(3): 2410-2418.
24 Sengupta S, Dey K K, Muddana H S, et al. Enzyme molecules as nanomotors[J]. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2013, 135(4): 1406-1414.
25 Ghosh S, Mohajerani F, Son S, et al. Motility of enzyme-powered vesicles[J]. Nano Letters, 2019, 19(9): 6019-6026.
26 Jee A Y, Dutta S, Cho Y K, et al. Enzyme leaps fuel antichemotaxis[J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2018, 115(1): 14-18.
27 Riedel C, Gabizon R, Wilson C A M, et al. The heat released during catalytic turnover enhances the diffusion of an enzyme[J]. Nature, 2015, 517(7533): 227-230.
28 Yu H, Jo K, Kounovsky K L, et al. Molecular propulsion: chemical sensing and chemotaxis of DNA driven by RNA polymerase[J]. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2009, 131(16): 5722-5723.
29 Mohajerani F, Zhao X, Somasundar A, et al. A theory of enzyme chemotaxis: from experiments to modeling[J]. Biochemistry, 2018, 57(43): 6256-6263.
30 Wu F, Pelster L N, Minteer S D. Krebs cycle metabolon formation: metabolite concentration gradient enhanced compartmentation of sequential enzymes[J]. Chemical Communications, 2015, 51(7): 1244-1247.
31 Zhao X, Palacci H, Yadav V, et al. Substrate-driven chemotactic assembly in an enzyme cascade[J]. Nature Chemistry, 2018, 10(3): 311-317.
32 An S, Kumar R, Sheets E D, et al. Reversible compartmentalization of de novo purine biosynthetic complexes in living cells[J]. Science, 2008, 320(5872): 103-106.
33 Dennison M, Kapral R, Stark H. Diffusion in systems crowded by active force-dipole molecules[J]. Soft Matter, 2017, 13(20): 3741-3749.
34 Slochower D R, Gilson M K. Motor-like properties of nonmotor enzymes[J]. Biophysical Journal, 2018, 114(9): 2174-2179.
35 Lauga E. Enhanced diffusion by reciprocal swimming[J]. Physical Review Letters, 2011, 106(17): 178101.
36 Illien P, Zhao X, Dey K K, et al. Exothermicity is not a necessary condition for enhanced diffusion of enzymes[J]. Nano Letters, 2017, 17(7): 4415-4420.
37 Golestanian R. Enhanced diffusion of enzymes that catalyze exothermic reactions[J]. Physical Review Letters, 2015, 115(10): 108102.
38 Dey K K, Zhao X, Tansi B M, et al. Micromotors powered by enzyme catalysis[J]. Nano Letters, 2015, 15(12): 8311-8315.
39 Golestanian R. Anomalous diffusion of symmetric and asymmetric active colloids[J]. Physical Review Letters, 2009, 102(18): 188305.
40 Zhang Y F, Hess H. Enhanced diffusion of catalytically active enzymes[J]. ACS Central Science, 2019, 5(6): 939-948.
41 Zhao X, Dey K K, Jeganathan S, et al. Enhanced diffusion of passive tracers in active enzyme solutions[J]. Nano Letters, 2017, 17(8): 4807-4812.
42 Sitt A, Soukupova J, Miller D, et al. Microscale rockets and picoliter containers engineered from electrospun polymeric microtubes[J]. Small, 2016, 12(11): 1432-1439.
43 Dey K K, Wong F, Altemose A, et al. Catalytic motors—quo vadimus?[J]. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 2016, 21: 4-13.
44 Pavel I A, Bunea A I, David S, et al. Nanorods with biocatalytically induced self-electrophoresis[J]. ChemCatChem, 2014, 6(3): 866-872.
45 Gao C Y, Zhou C, Lin Z H, et al. Surface wettability-directed propulsion of glucose-powered nanoflask motors[J]. ACS Nano, 2019, 13(11): 12758-12766.
46 Li H A, Sun Z Y, Jiang S Q, et al. Tadpole-like unimolecular nanomotor with sub-100 nm size swims in a tumor microenvironment model[J]. Nano Letters, 2019, 19(12): 8749-8757.
47 Wang Z, Yan Y, Li C, et al. Fluidity-guided assembly of Au@Pt on liposomes as a catalase-powered nanomotor for effective cell uptake in cancer cells and plant leaves[J]. ACS Nano, 2022, 16(6): 9019-9030.
48 Keller S, Teora S P, Hu G X, et al. High-throughput design of biocompatible enzyme-based hydrogel microparticles with autonomous movement[J]. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2018, 57(31): 9814-9817.
49 Ma X, Hortelao A C, Miguel-López A, et al. Bubble-free propulsion of ultrasmall tubular nanojets powered by biocatalytic reactions[J]. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2016, 138(42): 13782-13785.
50 Ma X, Wang X, Hahn K, et al. Motion control of urea-powered biocompatible hollow microcapsules[J]. ACS Nano, 2016, 10(3): 3597-3605.
51 Patiño T, Feiner-Gracia N, Arqué X, et al. Influence of enzyme quantity and distribution on the self-propulsion of non-Janus urease-powered micromotors[J]. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2018, 140(25): 7896-7903.
52 Hu Y, Sun Y. Autonomous motion of immobilized enzyme on Janus particles significantly facilitates enzymatic reactions[J]. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 2019, 149: 107242.
53 Schattling P S, Ramos-Docampo M A, Salgueiriño V, et al. Double-fueled Janus swimmers with magnetotactic behavior[J]. ACS Nano, 2017, 11(4): 3973-3983.
54 Ramos-Docampo M A, Fernández-Medina M, Taipaleenmäki E, et al. Microswimmers with heat delivery capacity for 3D cell spheroid penetration[J]. ACS Nano, 2019, 13(10): 12192-12205.
55 Ji Y X, Lin X K, Wu Z G, et al. Macroscale chemotaxis from a swarm of bacteria-mimicking nanoswimmers[J]. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2019, 58(35): 12200-12205.
56 Abdelmohsen L K E A, Nijemeisland M, Pawar G M, et al. Dynamic loading and unloading of proteins in polymeric stomatocytes: formation of an enzyme-loaded supramolecular nanomotor[J]. ACS Nano, 2016, 10(2): 2652-2660.
57 Schattling P, Thingholm B, Städler B. Enhanced diffusion of glucose-fueled Janus particles[J]. Chemistry of Materials, 2015, 27(21): 7412-7418.
58 Nijemeisland M, Abdelmohsen L K E A, Huck W T S, et al. A compartmentalized out-of-equilibrium enzymatic reaction network for sustained autonomous movement[J]. ACS Central Science, 2016, 2(11): 843-849.
59 Laskar A, Shklyaev O E, Balazs A C. Collaboration and competition between active sheets for self-propelled particles[J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2019, 116(19): 9257-9262.
60 Sengupta S, Patra D, Ortiz-Rivera I, et al. Self-powered enzyme micropumps[J]. Nature Chemistry, 2014, 6(5): 415-422.
61 Ortiz-Rivera I, Shum H, Agrawal A, et al. Convective flow reversal in self-powered enzyme micropumps[J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2016, 113(10): 2585-2590.
62 Shao J X, Cao S P, Che H L, et al. Twin-engine Janus supramolecular nanomotors with counterbalanced motion[J]. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2022, 144(25): 11246-11252.
63 Hortelão A C, Patiño T, Perez-Jiménez A, et al. Enzyme-powered nanobots enhance anticancer drug delivery[J]. Advanced Functional Materials, 2018, 28(25): 1705086.
64 Ma X, S􀅡nchez S. Bio-catalytic mesoporous Janus nano-motors powered by catalase enzyme[J]. Tetrahedron, 2017, 73(33): 4883-4886.
65 Ma X, Jannasch A, Albrecht U R, et al. Enzyme-powered hollow mesoporous Janus nanomotors[J]. Nano Letters, 2015, 15(10): 7043-7050.
66 Zhang C Y, Dong X Y, Guo Z, et al. Remarkably enhanced activity and substrate affinity of lipase covalently bonded on zwitterionic polymer-grafted silica nanoparticles[J]. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2018, 519: 145-153.
67 Alarcón-Correa M, Günther J P, Troll J, et al. Self-assembled phage-based colloids for high localized enzymatic activity[J]. ACS Nano, 2019, 13(5): 5810-5815.
68 Ye Y C, Tong F, Wang S H, et al. Apoptotic tumor DNA activated nanomotor chemotaxis[J]. Nano Letters, 2021, 21(19): 8086-8094.
69 Jang W S, Kim H J, Gao C, et al. Enzymatically powered surface-associated self-motile protocells[J]. Small, 2018, 14(36): 1801715.
70 Joseph A, Contini C, Cecchin D, et al. Chemotactic synthetic vesicles: design and applications in blood-brain barrier crossing[J]. Science Advances, 2017, 3(8): e1700362.
71 Somasundar A, Ghosh S, Mohajerani F, et al. Positive and negative chemotaxis of enzyme-coated liposome motors[J]. Nature Nanotechnology, 2019, 14(12): 1129-1134.
72 Arqué X, Romero-Rivera A, Feixas F, et al. Intrinsic enzymatic properties modulate the self-propulsion of micromotors[J]. Nature Communications, 2019, 10: 2826.
73 Luo M, Li S, Wan J, et al. Enhanced propulsion of urease-powered micromotors by multilayered assembly of ureases on Janus magnetic microparticles[J]. Langmuir, 2020, 36(25): 7005-7013.
74 Tang S S, Zhang F Y, Gong H, et al. Enzyme-powered Janus platelet cell robots for active and targeted drug delivery[J]. Science Robotics, 2020, 5(43): eaba6137.
75 Wang D, Chen C, Sun J, et al. Refillable fuel-loading microshell motors for persistent motion in a fuel-free environment[J]. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2022, 14(23): 27074-27082.
76 Zhang X Q, Chen C T, Wu J, et al. Bubble-propelled jellyfish-like micromotors for DNA sensing[J]. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2019, 11(14): 13581-13588.
77 Chen C T, He Z Q, Wu J, et al. Motion of enzyme-powered microshell motors[J]. Chemistry—An Asian Journal, 2019, 14(14): 2491-2496.
78 Tu Y F, Peng F, Sui X F, et al. Self-propelled supramolecular nanomotors with temperature-responsive speed regulation[J]. Nature Chemistry, 2017, 9(5): 480-486.
79 Che H L, Buddingh’ B C, van Hest J C M. Self-regulated and temporal control of a “breathing” microgel mediated by enzymatic reaction[J]. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2017, 56(41): 12581-12585.
80 Wu M Y, Liu S P, Liu Z C, et al. Photothermal interference urease-powered polydopamine nanomotor for enhanced propulsion and synergistic therapy[J]. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 2022, 212: 112353.
81 Wang D, Zhao G, Chen C H, et al. One-step fabrication of dual optically/magnetically modulated walnut-like micromotor[J]. Langmuir, 2019, 35(7): 2801-2807.
82 Hu Y, Li Z X, Sun Y. Ultrasmall enzyme/light-powered nanomotor facilitates cholesterol detection[J]. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2022, 621: 341-351.
83 Venugopalan P L, de Ávila B E F, Pal M, et al. Fantastic voyage of nanomotors into the cell[J]. ACS Nano, 2020, 14(8): 9423-9439.
84 Gao C Y, Wang Y, Ye Z H, et al. Biomedical micro-/nanomotors: from overcoming biological barriers to in vivo imaging[J]. Advanced Materials, 2021, 33(6): 2000512.
85 Chen Z J, Xia T, Zhang Z L, et al. Enzyme-powered Janus nanomotors launched from intratumoral depots to address drug delivery barriers[J]. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2019, 375: 122109.
86 Yuan H, Liu X X, Wang L Y, et al. Fundamentals and applications of enzyme powered micro/nano-motors[J]. Bioactive Materials, 2021, 6(6): 1727-1749.
87 Wu Z G, Lin X K, Zou X, et al. Biodegradable protein-based rockets for drug transportation and light-triggered release[J]. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2015, 7(1): 250-255.
88 Llopis-Lorente A, García-Fernández A, Murillo-Cremaes N, et al. Enzyme-powered gated mesoporous silica nanomotors for on-command intracellular payload delivery[J]. ACS Nano, 2019, 13(10): 12171-12183.
89 Llopis-Lorente A, García-Fernández A, Lucena-Sánchez E, et al. Stimulus-responsive nanomotors based on gated enzyme-powered Janus Au-mesoporous silica nanoparticles for enhanced cargo delivery[J]. Chemical Communications, 2019, 55(87): 13164-13167.
90 Hu Y, Liu W, Sun Y. Self-propelled micro-/nanomotors as “on-the-move” platforms: cleaners, sensors, and reactors[J]. Advanced Functional Materials, 2022, 32(10): 2109181.
91 Patiño T, Porchetta A, Jannasch A, et al. Self-sensing enzyme-powered micromotors equipped with pH-responsive DNA nanoswitches[J]. Nano Letters, 2019, 19(6): 3440-3447.
92 Bunea A I, Pavel I A, David S, et al. Sensing based on the motion of enzyme-modified nanorods[J]. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2015, 67: 42-48.
93 Singh V V, Kaufmann K, de Ávila B E F, et al. Nanomotors responsive to nerve-agent vapor plumes[J]. Chemical Communications, 2016, 52(16): 3360-3363.
94 Ortiz-Rivera I, Courtney T M, Sen A. Enzyme micropump-based inhibitor assays[J]. Advanced Functional Materials, 2016, 26(13): 2135-2142.
95 Xie Y Z, Fu S Z, Wu J, et al. Motor-based microprobe powered by bio-assembled catalase for motion detection of DNA[J]. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2017, 87: 31-37.
96 Fu S Z, Zhang X Q, Xie Y Z, et al. An efficient enzyme-powered micromotor device fabricated by cyclic alternate hybridization assembly for DNA detection[J]. Nanoscale, 2017, 9(26): 9026-9033.
97 Simmchen J, Baeza A, Ruiz D, et al. Asymmetric hybrid silica nanomotors for capture and cargo transport: towards a novel motion-based DNA sensor[J]. Small, 2012, 8(13): 2053-2059.
98 Zhang Y, Gregory D A, Zhang Y, et al. Reactive inkjet printing of functional silk stirrers for enhanced mixing and sensing[J]. Small, 2019, 15(1): 1804213.
99 Karshalev E, de Ávila B E F, Wang J. Micromotors for “chemistry-on-the-fly”[J]. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2018, 140(11): 3810-3820.
100 Sattayasamitsathit S, Kaufmann K, Galarnyk M, et al. Dual-enzyme natural motors incorporating decontamination and propulsion capabilities[J]. RSC Advances, 2014, 4(52): 27565-27570.
101 Wang L, Hortelão A C, Huang X, et al. Lipase-powered mesoporous silica nanomotors for triglyceride degradation[J]. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2019, 58(24): 7992-7996.
102 Valdez L, Shum H, Ortiz-Rivera I, et al. Solutal and thermal buoyancy effects in self-powered phosphatase micropumps[J]. Soft Matter, 2017, 13(15): 2800-2807.
103 Das S, Shklyaev O E, Altemose A, et al. Harnessing catalytic pumps for directional delivery of microparticles in microchambers[J]. Nature Communications, 2017, 8(1): 14384.
[1] Lanhe ZHANG, Qingyi LAI, Tiezheng WANG, Xiaozhuo GUAN, Mingshuang ZHANG, Xin CHENG, Xiaohui XU, Yanping JIA. Effect of H2O2 on nitrogen removal and sludge properties in SBR [J]. CIESC Journal, 2023, 74(5): 2186-2196.
[2] Lufan JIA, Yiying WANG, Yuman DONG, Qinyuan LI, Xin XIE, Hao YUAN, Tao MENG. Aqueous two-phase system based adherent droplet microfluidics for enhanced enzymatic reaction [J]. CIESC Journal, 2023, 74(3): 1239-1246.
[3] Xin LIU, Jun GE, Chun LI. Light-driven microbial hybrid systems improve level of biomanufacturing [J]. CIESC Journal, 2023, 74(1): 330-341.
[4] Zhuotao TAN, Siyu QI, Mengjiao XU, Jie DAI, Chenjie ZHU, Hanjie YING. Application of the redox cascade systems with coenzyme self-cycling in biocatalytic processes: opportunities and challenges [J]. CIESC Journal, 2023, 74(1): 45-59.
[5] Shaojie AN, Hongfeng XU, Si LI, Yuanhang XU, Jiaxi LI. Construction of pH sensitive artificial glutathione peroxidase based on the formation and dissociation of molecular machine [J]. CIESC Journal, 2022, 73(8): 3669-3678.
[6] Mai ZHANG, Yao TIAN, Zhiqi GUO, Ye WANG, Guangjin DOU, Hao SONG. Design and optimization of photocatalysis-biological hybrid system for green synthesis of fuels and chemicals [J]. CIESC Journal, 2022, 73(7): 2774-2789.
[7] Xinzhe ZHANG, Wentao SUN, Bo LYU, Chun LI. Oxidative modification of plant natural products and microbial manufacturing [J]. CIESC Journal, 2022, 73(7): 2790-2805.
[8] Jiachen SUN, Wentao SUN, Hui SUN, Bo LYU, Chun LI. Licorice flavone synthase Ⅱ catalyzes liquiritigenin to specifically synthesize 7,4′-dihydroxyflavone [J]. CIESC Journal, 2022, 73(7): 3202-3211.
[9] Yinlong XU, Wenchieh CHENG, Lin WANG, Zhongfei XUE, Yixin XIE. Implication and enhancement mechanism of chitosan-assisted enzyme- induced carbonate precipitation for copper wastewater treatment [J]. CIESC Journal, 2022, 73(5): 2222-2232.
[10] Haihang TONG, Dezhi SHI, Jiayu LIU, Huayi CAI, Dan LUO, Fei CHEN. Research progress on dark fermentative bio-hydrogen production from lignocellulose assisted by metal nanoparticles [J]. CIESC Journal, 2022, 73(4): 1417-1435.
[11] Lin WANG, Qian FU, Shuai XIAO, Zhuo LI, Jun LI, Liang ZHANG, Xun ZHU, Qiang LIAO. High-efficient visible light responsive microbial photoelectrochemical system for CO2 reduction to CH4 [J]. CIESC Journal, 2022, 73(2): 887-893.
[12] Haibo LIU, Nan WANG, Hongzhou LIU, Tiezhu CHEN, Jianchang LI. Effects of voltage perturbation on the activities of microorganisms and key enzymes in EAD metabolic flux [J]. CIESC Journal, 2022, 73(10): 4603-4612.
[13] Xinhui WANG, Ying WANG, Mingdong YAO, Wenhai XIAO. Research progress of vitamin A biosynthesis [J]. CIESC Journal, 2022, 73(10): 4311-4323.
[14] Wei SONG, Jinhui WANG, Guipeng HU, Xiulai CHEN, Liming LIU, Jing WU. Cascade catalysis for the synthesis of (R)-β-tyrosine [J]. CIESC Journal, 2022, 73(1): 352-361.
[15] Zhenlin ZHU, Songlin WANG, Bingxue JIANG, Jiaxu LI, Wei DENG, Haiqiang WU, Xuan YANG, Pingwei LIU, Wenjun WANG. Study on biodegradation of polyesters and their evaluation methods [J]. CIESC Journal, 2022, 73(1): 110-121.
Full text



No Suggested Reading articles found!