化工学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (3): 1256-1269.doi: 10.11949/0438-1157.20211472

• 过程系统工程 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于稳定性的循环物流系统流程模拟——以催化裂化反应-再生系统为例

曹森山(),许锋(),罗雄麟   

  1. 中国石油大学(北京)信息科学与工程学院自动化系,北京 102249
  • 收稿日期:2021-10-13 修回日期:2021-11-11 出版日期:2022-03-15 发布日期:2022-03-14
  • 通讯作者: 许锋 E-mail:css13141220909@163.com;xufeng@cup.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:曹森山(1996—),男,硕士研究生,css13141220909@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(21676295)

Process simulation of stream circulation system based on stability:

Senshan CAO(),Feng XU(),Xionglin LUO   

  1. Department of Automation, College of Information Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249, China
  • Received:2021-10-13 Revised:2021-11-11 Published:2022-03-15 Online:2022-03-14
  • Contact: Feng XU E-mail:css13141220909@163.com;xufeng@cup.edu.cn

摘要:

过程流程模拟中广泛应用的序贯模块法处理循环物流系统存在很多困难,如断裂流股的选择、迭代方程的收敛性等。基于稳定性理论解决循环物流系统的流程模拟问题,首先根据化工单元装置的模型方程将其分为正向模型和反向模型,并将循环物流中的变量定义为迭代变量和收敛变量;然后在收敛变量处将循环物流的流股断裂,迭代变量分别通过正向模型和反向模型计算收敛变量,二者的偏差通过增益系数对迭代变量进行修正,进而得到迭代方程;最后,利用控制理论中的稳定性理论来确定迭代方程的增益系数,将迭代方程线性化,采用劳斯判据确定增益系数的稳定范围,当增益系数位于稳定范围以内时,迭代方程必然收敛。催化裂化装置反应-再生系统因催化剂循环的存在而成为典型的循环物流系统,本文将反应器作为正向模型,再生器作为反向模型,以再生温度和再生催化剂含碳量作为迭代变量,构造了催化裂化装置反应-再生系统流程模拟的迭代方程,利用稳定性理论找到增益系数的稳定范围,保证流程模拟计算必定达到收敛,验证了该方法的可行性和有效性。

关键词: 循环物流, 过程系统, 流程模拟, 催化裂化装置, 稳定性

Abstract:

The sequential modular method, which is widely used in process simulation, has many difficulties in dealing with stream circulation system, such as the selection of tearing stream and the convergence of iterative equations. Based on the stability theory, this paper solves the process simulation problem of stream circulation system. First, according to the model equation, chemical plants are identified as forward model and backward model, and the variables in stream circulation are defined as iterative variables and convergence variables respectively. Then, the stream circulation is broken at the convergence variables, and the convergence variables are calculated from the iterative variables by the forward model and the backward model respectively; the convergence errors are used for the correction of iterative variables through the gain coefficients, and then the iterative equation is obtained. Finally, the stability theory in control theory is used to determine the gain coefficient of the iterative equation, the iterative equation is linearized, and the Routh criterion is used to determine the stable range of the gain coefficient; when the gain coefficients is within the stable range, the iterative equation must converge. The reaction and regeneration system of FCCU is a typical stream circulation system because of catalyst circulation. The reactor is treated as the forward model and the regenerator is treated as the backward model. The temperature and carbon content of regenerator are treated as iteration variables to build the iterative equation of process simulation for FCCU reaction and regeneration system. The stability range of the gain coefficients is found by using the stability theory to ensure the convergence of the simulation calculation, and the feasibility and effectiveness of this method are verified.

Key words: stream circulation, process system, process simulation, FCCU, stability

中图分类号: 

  • TQ 021.8

图1

正向模型"

图2

反向模型"

图3

含循环物流的信息流图"

图4

断裂后的含循环物流的信息流图"

图5

求取收敛模块的流程图"

表1

劳斯表"

wnanan-2an-4an-6
wn-1an-1an-3an-5an-7
wn-2b1b2b3b4
wn-3c1c2c3c4
wn-4d1d2d3d4
??????
w2e1e2
w1f10
w0g10

图6

甲苯氧化制苯甲酸反应-分离系统流程图"

图7

反应-分离的信息流图"

图8

甲苯氧化反应-分离系统四种模拟计算结果对比— 正向/反向模型迭代法; ---- 直接迭代法; -·- 加权迭代法; … 牛顿迭代法"

图9

催化裂化装置结构示意图"

表2

催化裂化装置过程数据"

压力/kPa温度/℃
反应器顶再生器顶

提升管

出口

再生器

密相床

244.95274.38500700

催化剂藏量/

kg

主风流量/

(m3/h)

新鲜原料量/

(kg/h)

催化剂循环量/

(kg/h)

270004550075000410000

图10

催化裂化装置反应-再生系统的信息流X1——提升管出口变量; X2——再生器入口变量; X3——再生器第一个CSTR出口变量; X4——再生器第二个CSTR入口变量; X5——再生器第二个CSTR出口变量"

图11

断裂后催化裂化装置反应-再生系统的信息流"

图12

提升管与汽提段主要变量迭代收敛曲线"

图13

再生器主要变量迭代收敛曲线"

表3

本文模拟计算的稳态值和生产数据对比"

各单元出口变量模拟结果稳态值生产数据误差/%
再生剂含碳量/%(mass)0.180.18754.00
再生温度/℃699.857000.02
再生烟气氧含量/%(mol)2.662.773.97
反应温度/℃503.39500.08550.66
待生催化剂活性0.20710.20300.02
汽提段出口焦炭含量/%(mass)1.0313.00
回炼油生成量/(t/h)14.75614.95001.30
回炼油油浆生成量/(t/h)8.39088.55001.86
焦炭产率/%(mass)4.76965.01044.81
柴油产率/%(mass)39.902838.63863.27
汽油产率/%(mass)39.586441.24394.02
气体产率/%(mass)11.545012.10894.66
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